Abruptio placentae, also known as placental abruption, is a serious medical condition that occurs when the placenta separates from the lining of the uterus before the baby is delivered. This can happen at any time during the second or third trimester of pregnancy, but is most common in the third trimester.
The exact cause of abruptio placentae is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to problems with the blood vessels that supply the placenta. Risk factors for the condition include high blood pressure, smoking, drug use, trauma to the abdomen, and previous episodes of abruptio placentae.
Symptoms of abruptio placentae can include vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, contractions, and fetal distress. In some cases, there may be no visible symptoms, but the condition can be detected during routine prenatal ultrasound exams.
Abruptio placentae is a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment. Treatment may include monitoring the mother and baby closely, administering medications to prevent premature labor, and delivering the baby by cesarean section if necessary.
Complications of abruptio placentae can include maternal hemorrhage, shock, and organ failure, as well as fetal distress, premature birth, and stillbirth. The severity of the condition and its potential complications depend on the extent of the placental separation and the gestational age of the fetus.
It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care and to notify their healthcare provider immediately if they experience any symptoms of abruptio placentae or other pregnancy complications.