Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is a term used in the field of toxicology to refer to the amount of a substance that can be consumed daily over a lifetime without causing harm to human health. The ADI is typically determined by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), based on extensive scientific research and risk assessment.
The ADI is calculated by dividing the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) by a safety factor, usually 100 or 1,000, to account for potential differences in sensitivity among individuals and uncertainties in the available data. The NOAEL is the highest dose of a substance that does not produce any observable harmful effects in animal studies, and is considered a conservative estimate of the highest safe dose for humans.
The ADI is used as a basis for setting regulatory limits on the use of substances in food, water, and other consumer products. For example, the FDA sets ADIs for food additives, such as sweeteners and preservatives, to ensure that their use does not pose a risk to human health. Similarly, the EFSA sets ADIs for pesticide residues in food, to ensure that they are used at safe levels that do not pose a risk to consumers.
It is important to note that the ADI is a safety threshold, and does not necessarily represent a recommended or optimal level of consumption. Additionally, the ADI may not be applicable to certain subpopulations, such as pregnant women, infants, or individuals with certain medical conditions, who may be more sensitive to the effects of certain substances.