Adhesive capsulitis, also known as frozen shoulder, is a condition in which the shoulder joint becomes stiff and painful. The condition usually develops gradually over time and can be caused by injury or trauma to the shoulder, surgery, or prolonged immobilization of the shoulder joint.
Adhesive capsulitis occurs when the capsule that surrounds the shoulder joint becomes thick and stiff, restricting movement of the joint. This can lead to pain and difficulty performing activities that involve the shoulder, such as reaching overhead or behind the back.
The condition is more common in women than men, and often occurs in people who are middle-aged or older. Other risk factors include diabetes, thyroid disorders, and cardiovascular disease.
The treatment for adhesive capsulitis typically involves a combination of physical therapy, pain management, and in some cases, surgery. Physical therapy can help to improve range of motion and reduce pain, while pain management may involve the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or corticosteroid injections. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to release the stiffened capsule and restore normal shoulder movement.
Early diagnosis and treatment of adhesive capsulitis is important to prevent long-term joint stiffness and disability.