Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone and neurotransmitter produced by the adrenal medulla in response to stress or danger. It is one of the body’s “fight or flight” hormones, and is responsible for preparing the body to respond to a perceived threat.
When adrenaline is released into the bloodstream, it causes a number of physiological changes in the body, including increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate. It also dilates the pupils of the eyes, diverts blood flow away from non-essential organs such as the digestive system, and increases blood sugar levels to provide energy to the muscles.
Adrenaline can be released in response to a variety of stimuli, including physical stress such as injury or exercise, emotional stress such as fear or anxiety, and medical conditions such as hypoglycemia or anaphylaxis. Adrenaline is also used therapeutically to treat a number of medical conditions, including severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis), cardiac arrest, and asthma.
However, excessive or prolonged release of adrenaline can be harmful to the body, leading to conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and anxiety disorders. Additionally, certain medical conditions such as pheochromocytoma (a tumor of the adrenal medulla) can cause excessive release of adrenaline, leading to a range of symptoms including high blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, and sweating.
In summary, adrenaline is a hormone and neurotransmitter produced by the adrenal medulla in response to stress or danger. It plays an important role in the body’s “fight or flight” response, but excessive or prolonged release can be harmful to the body.