Adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by fever, joint pain and inflammation, skin rash, sore throat, and muscle pain. AOSD mostly affects adults in their 20s to 40s, although it can occur at any age.
The cause of AOSD is unknown, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder. The immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues, leading to the symptoms of the disease. Genetic and environmental factors may also play a role.
The most common symptoms of AOSD are fever, joint pain and swelling, skin rash, and sore throat. Other symptoms may include muscle pain, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, and inflammation of internal organs such as the heart and lungs. Symptoms can come and go, and may last for months or even years.
Diagnosis of AOSD can be challenging, as there are no specific tests for the disease. A diagnosis is usually based on clinical signs and symptoms, ruling out other possible causes, and sometimes by biopsy of affected tissues.
Treatment for AOSD aims to control inflammation and relieve symptoms. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen may be used to reduce pain and fever. Corticosteroids such as prednisone are often used to control inflammation. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) such as methotrexate may be used in more severe cases.
Prognosis for AOSD varies, with some patients experiencing remission and others having chronic disease. Treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life, but there is currently no cure for AOSD.