Calicivirus is a family of viruses that includes many different strains, some of which can cause disease in humans and animals. These viruses are typically spread through contaminated food or water, contact with infected individuals or animals, or through respiratory droplets.
In humans, calicivirus infections are commonly associated with gastroenteritis, which is inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Symptoms of calicivirus infection can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. Most people recover from the infection within a few days without any specific treatment. However, the infection can be more severe in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as the elderly or those with underlying medical conditions.
Caliciviruses are also important pathogens in animals, including cats, dogs, and cattle. For example, feline calicivirus can cause respiratory disease and oral ulcerations in cats, while bovine calicivirus can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal disease in cattle.
There are currently no specific antiviral treatments for calicivirus infections in humans, and treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and preventing dehydration. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding contact with infected individuals or animals, and properly preparing and storing food. Vaccines are available for some animal strains of calicivirus, such as feline calicivirus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus.