CALLA (common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen) is a protein that is found on the surface of certain types of cells, including some leukemia cells. It was first discovered in the 1970s as a marker for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a type of cancer that affects the white blood cells.
CALLA is a glycoprotein, meaning it has both carbohydrate and protein components. It is also known as CD10, as it is the 10th cluster of differentiation (CD) antigen identified on the surface of cells.
In medical settings, CALLA/CD10 is used as a diagnostic marker for identifying ALL and distinguishing it from other types of leukemia and lymphoma. ALL is the most common type of cancer in children, and CALLA is found on the surface of leukemic cells in approximately 75% of cases.
CALLA is also found on the surface of certain normal cells, including immature B lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) and some kidney cells. It is thought to play a role in cell growth and differentiation, although its precise function is not fully understood.
In addition to its diagnostic use, CALLA has also been studied as a potential target for cancer therapy. Antibodies that specifically target CALLA/CD10 have been developed and tested in preclinical studies as a potential treatment for ALL and other cancers that express this antigen.
Overall, CALLA is a protein found on the surface of certain cells, including some leukemia cells, and is used as a diagnostic marker for identifying ALL. It may also have potential as a target for cancer therapy.