The endocrine system is a network of glands in your body that make the hormones that help cells talk to each other.
Hormones are like the body’s communication system. They take messages from one part of the body (the gland) to tell another part of the body (the target cell) to do something important. The endocrine glands influence reproduction, metabolism, growth and many other functions.
In this video, we will introduce you Endocrine system glands and hormones.
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What Is a Gland?
A gland is an organ that makes and puts out hormones that do a specific job in your body. Endocrine glands release the substances they make into your bloodstream.
Parts of the Endocrine System
Many glands make up the endocrine system. The hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and pineal gland are in your brain. The thyroid and parathyroid glands are in your neck. The thymus is between your lungs, the adrenals are on top of your kidneys, and the pancreas is behind your stomach. Ovaries or testes are in your pelvic region.
- Hypothalamus. This organ connects your endocrine system with your nervous system. Its main job is to tell your pituitary gland to start or stop making hormones.
- It produces hormones that include anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), oxytocin, dopamine, corticotrophin releasing hormone, thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH), gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin.
- Pituitary: The pituitary gland is at the base of the brain, and is no bigger than a pea.
- The pituitary gland produce hormones that include luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
- Pineal: The pineal body, also called the pineal gland, is in the middle of the brain. It secretes melatonin, a hormone that may help regulate when you sleep at night and when you wake in the morning.
- Thyroid gland. This gland makes thyroid hormone, which controls your metabolism. If this gland doesn’t make enough, a condition called hypothyroidism, If it makes too much, this condition also called hyperthyroidism.
- Parathyroid. This is a set of four small glands behind your thyroid. They play a role in bone health. The glands control your levels of calcium and phosphorus.
- Thymus. This gland makes white blood cells called T-lymphocytes that fight infection and are crucial as a child’s immune system develops. The thymus starts to shrink after puberty.
- Adrenals. Best known for making the “fight or flight” hormone adrenaline (also called epinephrine), these two glands also make hormones called corticosteroids. They affect your metabolism and sexual function, among other things.
- Pancreas. This organ is part of both your digestive and endocrine systems. It makes digestive enzymes that break down food. It also makes the hormones insulin and glucagon. These ensure you have the right amount of sugar in your bloodstream and your cells.
- Ovaries. In women, these organs make estrogen and progesterone. These hormones help develop breasts at puberty, regulate the menstrual cycle, and support a pregnancy.
- Testes. In men, the testes make testosterone. It helps them grow facial and body hair at puberty. It also tells the penis to grow larger and plays a role in making sperm.
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