The thyroid gland is located in the front lower part of your neck. Hormones released by the gland travel through your bloodstream and affect nearly every part of your body, from your heart and brain to your muscles and skin.
In this video, we will introduce you Underactive Thyroid that also called hypothyroidism causes, symptoms, treatment.
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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid disease, is a common disorder. With hypothyroidism, your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.
Causes of hypothyroidism
The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. “Thyroiditis” is an inflammation of the thyroid gland. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder. With Hashimoto’s, your body produces antibodies that attack and destroy the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis may also be caused by a viral infection.
Other causes of hypothyroidism include:
Radiation therapy to the neck area.
Radioactive iodine treatment.
Use of certain medications. Certain medicines to treat heart problems, psychiatric conditions, and cancer can sometimes affect the production of thyroid hormones.
Thyroid surgery. Surgery to remove the thyroid will lead to hypothyroidism.
Too little iodine in the diet.
Pregnancy. The reason isn’t clear, but sometimes, inflammation of the thyroid occurs after pregnancy.
Problems with the thyroid at birth. Some babies may be born with a thyroid gland that did not develop correctly or does not work properly.
Pituitary gland damage or disorder. Rarely, a problem with the pituitary gland can interfere with the production of thyroid hormone.
Disorder of the hypothalamus. An extremely rare form of hypothyroidism can occur if the hypothalamus in the brain does not produce enough of a hormone called TRH. TRH affects the release of TSH from the pituitary gland.
Symptoms of hypothyroidism
There may some important symptoms present when hypothyroidism happens to the patient.
- Fatigue, Increased sensitivity to cold
- Weight gain, Constipation, Muscle weakness, Muscle aches
- Pain, stiffness or swelling in your joints
- Puffy face, Dry skin, Thinning hair
- Elevated blood cholesterol level, Slowed heart rate
- Heavier than normal or irregular menstrual periods
- Depression, Impaired memory
- Enlarged thyroid gland (goiter)
Hypothyroidism in infants
Although hypothyroidism most often affects middle-aged and older women, anyone can develop the condition, including infants.
When newborns do have problems with hypothyroidism, the problems may include:
- Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice).
- A large, protruding tongue.
- Difficulty breathing.
- Hoarse crying.
- An umbilical hernia.
- fail to grow and develop normally.
- Poor muscle tone
- Excessive sleepiness
- Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism
If you have symptoms of hypothyroidism, your doctor will order blood tests to check hormone levels include Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), T4 (thyroxine).
If your test results or physical exam of the thyroid are abnormal, your doctor may order a thyroid ultrasound, or thyroid scan, to check for nodules or inflammation.
Hypothyroidism is a lifelong condition. For many people, the medication reduces or alleviates symptoms.
If you have hypothyroidism, your doctor will prescribe a synthetic thyroid hormone T4 called levothyroxine. You take this pill every day.
You will need regular blood tests to check your thyroid hormone levels. Your doctor may need to adjust your medication dose from time to time.
Complications of Hypothyroidism
Untreated, hypothyroidism may cause complications, such as:
Balance problems. Older women are at extra risk for balance problems if their thyroid hormone levels are too low.
Goiter. If your thyroid is always trying to produce more hormones, the gland can swell and change the appearance of your neck. You may also have trouble swallowing.
Heart problems. Hypothyroidism puts you at greater risk for heart disease and can raise your levels of LDL or “bad” cholesterol.
Infertility. Too little thyroid hormone may disrupt your production of eggs (ovulation) and make it harder to conceive.
Joint pain. Low levels of thyroid hormone can cause you to have aches and pains in your joints and muscles, as well as tendonitis.
Mental health issues. Low thyroid hormones can cause memory or concentration lapses, as well as decreased interest in activities you used to enjoy. See your doctor if you notice these changes, as they could also be due to depression unrelated to your thyroid.
Obesity. Although hypothyroidism may curb your appetite, you can gain weight because your metabolism slows down too, and you don’t burn enough calories.
Peripheral neuropathy. Over time, low thyroid hormones can damage your peripheral nerves. You may notice pain, tingling, or numbness in your limbs.
Thyroid problems in a pregnant woman can affect the developing baby. During the first three months of pregnancy, the baby receives all thyroid hormones from its mother. If the mother has hypothyroidism, the baby does not get enough thyroid hormone. This can lead to problems with mental development.
Extremely low levels of thyroid hormone can cause a life-threatening condition called myxedema. Myxedema is the most severe form of hypothyroidism. A person with myxedema can lose consciousness or go into a coma. The condition can also cause the body temperature to drop very low, which can cause death.
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