Multiple myeloma is a type of blood cancer that affects plasma cells, which are white blood cells that produce antibodies to help fight infections. In multiple myeloma, malignant plasma cells grow uncontrollably in the bone marrow and can crowd out healthy blood cells. The cancer cells can also produce abnormal proteins that can cause kidney damage and weaken bones.
Multiple myeloma is typically diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, bone marrow biopsy, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans. Symptoms of multiple myeloma can include bone pain, fatigue, frequent infections, anemia, kidney problems, and weakness or numbness in the legs.
Treatment for multiple myeloma may involve chemotherapy, targeted therapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the patient’s age and overall health, and the presence of other medical conditions. While there is no cure for multiple myeloma, many patients can achieve remission and manage the disease for many years with appropriate treatment.