Nonarteriosclerotic Cerebral Calcification (NACC) is a rare condition characterized by abnormal deposits of calcium in the brain that are not related to atherosclerosis, a condition in which calcium deposits occur in the walls of arteries. NACC can be detected on imaging studies of the brain such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The condition may be asymptomatic, but in some cases it can cause neurologic symptoms such as headaches, seizures, movement disorders, cognitive impairment, or behavioral changes.
The exact cause of NACC is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to abnormal calcium metabolism or transport in the brain. Some genetic mutations have also been associated with the condition, particularly those affecting the SLC20A2 gene, which is involved in the regulation of calcium in brain cells.
There is no specific treatment for NACC, and management is focused on controlling the symptoms. Seizures may be treated with anticonvulsant medications, while movement disorders may be managed with medications such as dopamine agonists. In some cases, surgical removal of the calcium deposits may be considered, but this is a complex procedure that carries significant risks and is not always effective in relieving symptoms.