Testicular cancer, also known as testis cancer, is a type of cancer that develops in the testicles, which are the male reproductive organs responsible for producing sperm and testosterone. Testicular cancer is relatively rare, but it is the most common cancer in males between the ages of 15 and 35.
The exact cause of testicular cancer is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic mutations and abnormalities that occur during fetal development. Certain risk factors, such as a family history of testicular cancer, having an undescended testicle, and having a personal history of testicular cancer, may increase a person’s risk of developing the disease.
Symptoms of testicular cancer may include a painless lump or swelling in the testicle, a feeling of heaviness or discomfort in the scrotum, pain or discomfort in the testicle or scrotum, and a dull ache in the lower back or groin.
Diagnosis of testicular cancer typically involves a physical exam, blood tests, imaging tests (such as an ultrasound or CT scan), and a biopsy to remove a small sample of tissue from the testicle for further examination.
Treatment for testicular cancer depends on the stage of the cancer, as well as the individual’s overall health and preferences. It may include surgery to remove the cancerous testicle, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments. In some cases, surveillance may be recommended, which involves close monitoring of the cancer to see if treatment is necessary.
Prognosis for testicular cancer is generally good, with a high cure rate, especially when detected and treated early. After treatment, follow-up care and monitoring are important to check for any signs of recurrence or new cancer.
Men should perform regular self-exams of the testicles to check for any changes or abnormalities, and they should talk to their healthcare provider about any concerns or risk factors for testicular cancer.